Why Sustainable Seafood
- Growing concerns about the condition of the world’s ocean fish stocks.
- Many people don’t know where their seafood comes from
- Many don’t understand fisheries or fishery management
- Need information (e. from fishery managers, eco-labels, consumer guides, other sources?)
Locally – Produced Seafood
- Wild-caught fish is a major protein food produced in Hawaii, by Hawaii-based fisherman.
- Competes with imported seafood
- Seafood Supply in Hawaii? Estimated to be 37% of local seafood
- US Seafood Supply? Less than 10% of supply is domestic American seafood
What is Sustainable Wild Seafood
Sustainable wild seafood is harvested from renewable ocean resources that are managed in a way that can maintain production year after year without jeopardizing the ecosystem.
Port of Honolulu Ranking
- 32nd in the US in landed fish volume (29 million lbs.)
- 6th in the US in landed fish value ($100 million)
Top 10 Hawaii Crops (Farm Gate or Dockside)
- Fish (Wild, Open Ocean) $87.5 Million
- Sugarcane $78.1 Million
- Cattle $46.4 Million
- Macadamia Nuts $38.2 Million
- Coffee $31.5 Million
- Algae $25.2 Million
- Bananas $11.3 Million
- Papayas $9.7 Million
- Milk $9.5 Million
- Sweet Potatoes $7.3 Million
Hawaii Longline Fishery Production
- The main commercial fishery in Hawaii
- 80% of all Hawaii commercial fish landings
- 86% of total ex-vessel value
- $68.6 million of ex-vessel value per year (2000 – 2012)
Hawaii Longline Fishery
- Two segments of fishery
- Deep-set gear for Bigeye Tuna
- Shallow-set for Swordfish
- Uses monofilament longline gear
- Stores fish on ice
- Sells through a display auction
What is a Responsible Fishery
- One that is well-managed for sustainability
- Controls overfishing
- Controls ecosystem, bycatch, and protected species impacts
Is there a Global Standard
- The 1996 United Nations FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing
- The only international agreement of what countries should have in place to develop responsible fisheries and manage them for sustainability.
FAO Code of Conduct
- Hawaii’s Longline Fishery has the first and most comprehensive application of the Code as a scoring tool to date (according to FAO)
- Hawaii Longline Fishery assessment is used by FAO as a case study for the application of the Code.
Responsible Fisheries Assessment (RFA)
- The RFA Summary Score for Hawaii Longline Fisheries was 94% in 2008
- It was 93% in 2006
2008 RFA Results: Hawaii Longline Fisheries Scores for each Article
Article 7 Fishery Management 96% 109.5/ 114
Article 8 Fishing Operations 93% 70 / 75
Article 10 Integration with CZM 71% 17.5 / 21
Article 11 Post-Harvest Practices/ Trade 95% 38 / 40
Article 12 Fisheries Research 91% 30.5 / 33
Conclusion: Responsible Fisheries Assessment
- RFA answers the basic question, “Is the fishery well-managed for sustainability?”
- Fish Population Status: Rely on Fishery Stock Assessments (NOAA, WCPFC, IATTC)
- Ecosystem Impacts: Rely on research and monitoring of fishery reduction of Protected Species Interactions and Bycatch (NOAA, others)
Is the Hawaii Longline Fishery Well-Managed
- Is has achieved a high compliance score with the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
- It meets the 10 National Standards under NOAA and Council Management.
Hawaii was the first US pelagic fishery to limit entry.
The Hawaiian Fishery remains today capped at 164 permitted vessels
1991 Mandatory Daily Logbooks are required
1992 Longline Exclusion Zone out to 50 miles offshore. ?Prevented gear conflict with smaller boats
1993 Federal observers placed on Hawaii longline vessels
1994 First US Fishery to require satellite tracking (24:7) using Vessel Monitoring System (VMS).
2000 Shark finning was prohibited
2001 Federal observer coverage minimum of 20% of deep-set tuna longline ?fishing trips required
2004 Federal observer coverage of 100% for shallow-set swordfish longline fishing trips required
Measures to mitigate Sea Turtle interactions required. Circle hooks and mackerel bait replaced J-hooks and squid bait. 90% reduction in turtle catch rate achieved in the shallow-set swordfish fishery.
Shallow-set swordfish fishery adopts hard cap on the annual number of Sea Turtle interactions allowed. Enforcement in real time is made possible with 100% federal observer coverage.
Measures to reduce Seabird interactions are required and achieve 90% reduction.
Pacific Bigeye tuna catch quota established. Hawaii has the only longline fishery in Pacific capable of real time management and compliance with bigeye quota. Bigeye overfishing in Hawaii is eliminated.
Overfishing of Pacific Bigeye tuna begins in about 1993 in the Western and Central Pacific equatorial region by tuna purse seiners using drifting fish aggregating devices that aggregate juvenile bigeye tuna. Hawaii’s fishery operates in a distinct region far away from where overfishing is occurring.
Hawaii's Ideal Fishery Management System
- Fishery Management Plan
- Established Reference Points for sustainable catch limits and stock level
- Receives regular Scientific Advice
- Effective Monitoring and Control
- Responsible Corrective Management Actions
- Destructive Fishing Methods not used
- Discards (bycatch) minimized
- Ecosystem issues addressed
- Continuous Improvement Process embedded